Advaitins advocate the theory of transfiguration (vivartavada) in order to account for the origination of the phenomenal universe. According to this theory, the cause produces an effect without undergoing any change. Brahman is the substratum on which the world appears. The world does not exist independent of Brahman. The cause of the appearance of the world is maya which undergoes change and hence it is the transformative material cause (parinami upadana karana). Advaitins hold that the universe exists in an unmanifest form in Brahman. Such a view is known as Satkaryavada. Since maya does not exist independent of Brahman and Brahman devoid of maya cannot be the cause, Ishvara is said to be both the material and intelligent cause of the universe. Ishvara, the wielder of maya spins the universe in an orderly and purposeful manner. The causal state of maya is also beginningless, that evolves in two stages, firstly there is the evolution of the subtle universe, from which the gross universe emerges. This process develops at the macrocosmic and microcosmic level.