Svarupa and Virupa parinama

The Sâmkhya Philosophy advocates three gunas of Prakrti. These are; Sattva, rajas and tamas. Prakrti is a state of equilibrium of these three gunas. Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas contradict as well as cooperate among each other to produce an object. These three gunas are present in all the objects of the world. None of them exist alone. Among them each guna tries to dominate the other two. Hence, they can’t exist in a tranquility state. As a result, they can’t remain pure for a single moment. Since they are changing continuously, distortion is their nature. There are two types of transformations occur in the gunas. These are, ‘svarupa’ and ‘virupa’.


During pralaya or dissolution of the world, the gunas are changing within themselves without disturbing the others. That is, Sattva changes into Sattva, rajas changes into rajas and tamaj changes into tamaj. Such transformation of the gunas is called ‘svarupaparinâma’ or change into the homogenous. In this stage, the gunas can neither create nor produce anything.


In case of pralaya or dissolution of the world the gunas are in a state of constant flux and each tries to dominate the others. It is this flux of gunas that results in the formation of various objects. This kind of transformation is called virupa transformation or change into the heterogeneous. So, it is the starting point of the world’s evolution.

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