In Nayaya epistemology, there are two types of inference. One is Svârtha or for one’s self and two is Parârtha or for others.
In Parartha the inference is conveyed knowledge for others. In Parartha it is required to present the judgment in an orderly manner because the correct order of judgment helps an individual to make understand others. According to the Nyâya Philosophy, Parartha consists of five constituents.
- This hill has fire (Pratijnâ)
- Because there is smoke (Hetu)
- Wherever there is smoke, there is fire (Udâharana)
- This hill has smoke (Upamâna)
- Therefore, this hill has fire (Nigamâna)
In this inference, the middle term appears three times, Therefore, it is also known as ‘tritiyalinga parâmarsa’. In this inference, if we remove either first two premises or last two premises, the inference will not be an invalid and incorrect one. Hence, for an inference we need three and at least three premises possessing three different terms as its basic requirements.