The self, who is eternal, pure conscious, and all pervading, due to its ignorance identifies itself with the mânas, ahmkara, and mahat which are the products of Prakrti. Thus, it experiences the worldly pain and suffering. The universe is constituted of manifold objects, and since objects are embedded with gunas and selves and even interrelated among them, suffering is unavoidable. This is so because the Sâmkhya claims that wherever there is guna there is suffering. Further, they said that the life in heaven is also controlled by the gunas.
Since there are sufferings and bondage, there are also paths leads to liberation, emancipation or salvation. On Sâmkhya account, there are two sorts of liberation. These are;
The self attains freedom from worldly suffering and realizes truth in one’s life living in the earth is known as jivanmukti. In case of videhamukti, the self attains complete liberation from all sorts of sufferings. This is achieved after death only. Thus, videhamukti is known as kaivalya. This is understood as liberation from the gross body. The Sâmkhya theory of liberation is termed as ‘apavarga’, the purusartha or the summum bonum of life.
(Source: BPY005/Block 1/Unit 3/Page 42)