Cynicism

Cynicism made use of innovative and influential literary tradition of satire, parody and aphorism in order to spoil the dominant ideologies of the time. It proposed a new morality mainly based on two things: first, by minimizing creaturely needs in pursuit of self-sufficiency and second, by maximizing both freedom of speech and freedom of action. The former is achieved by physical training and the later by open defiance of the well-established social taboos. They followed an antipolitics which sees existing governments as a betrayal of human nature. Cynics considered traditional culture as an obstacle to happiness.

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